Gamma and x-rays belong to a group of electromagnetic radiation. Unlike radio waves and visible light, gamma and x-rays have shorter wavelengths (or higher frequencies) that have much higher energies.
While alpha and beta radiation has its maximum range is limited, so that the photons interact in a probabilistic maximum coverage of a photon can be highly variable (uncertain).

Nevertheless, the total fraction of photons absorbed by the material decreases exponentially with the thickness of the material.

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